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Lesson 3 Correlatives (table of words)

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Lesson 3 Correlatives (table of words)

These are tables of what we call the “Correlatives”. It's an exceptionally simple way to learn a whole set of very important words. The way to create any of the words is to take  one of the 5 beginnings, shown at the top of each column, in blue. Then add that to one of the endings, shown in the rows at the right, in red. Please note that each of these words has the letter "I" in the middle (or beginning) of the word.

ĉi [cxi]-
Universal
every
ki-
Question
what
i-
Indefinite
some
neni-
Negative
no
ti-
Specific
that

ĉia[jn] [cxia[jn]]
all / every kind[s]
kia[jn]
what kind[s]
ia[jn]
some kind[s]
nenia[jn]
no kind[s] of
tia[jn]
that kind[s] / such
-a
Kind (adjective)
ĉial [cxial]
for every reason
kial
why
ial
for some reason
nenial
for no reason
tial
so / for that reason
-al
Reason
ĉiam [cxiam]
always
kiam
when
iam
sometime
neniam
never
tiam
then
-am
Time
ĉie [cxie]
everywhere
kie
where
ie
somewhere
nenie
nowhere
tie
there
-e
Place
ĉiel [cxiel]
in all ways
kiel
how
iel
somehow
neniel
in no way
tiel
that way / so
-el
Way, Manner
ĉies [cxies]
everyone's
kies
whose
ies
someone's
nenies
noone's / nobody's
ties
that one's
-es
Posession
ĉio[jn] [cxio[jn]]
everything[s]
kio[jn]
what (thing[s])
io[jn]
something[s]
nenio[jn]
nothing[s]
tio[jn]
that (thing[s])
-o
Thing (noun)
ĉiom [cxiom]
every bit of it / all
kiom
how much
iom
some quantity / somewhat
neniom
none / no amount
tiom
that much
-om
Quantity
ĉiu[jn] [cxiu[jn]]
everyone[s]
kiu[jn]
who / which [whom]
iu[jn]
someone / some / anyone[s]
neniu[jn]
nobody / none[s]
tiu[jn]
that one[s]
-u
Person / Selection

Another way of looking at it is to choose one from the first column below. Then the -i- is always in the middle. Finally, choose one from the last column. That way any of the correlatives can be created. In effect,, you only need to learn 5 beginnings and 9 endings to learn 45 of the most common words in any language, in a simple compact system.



-a (kind)


-al (reason)
(every) ĉ- [cx-]

-am (time)
(what) k-

-e (place)
(some)
-i-
-el (way)
(no) nen-

-es (one's)
(that) t-

-o (thing)


-om (amount)


-u (one)

 

Ĉi [Cxi] is another word that goes with the above words. It is often confused with one of the "Ĉi-" ["Cxi-"] words, but it is not part of that system at all. Simply, "ĉi" ["cxi"] is a word that stands alone as a "proximity" marker. It makes "that" into "this". So: "tio" means "that (thing)", "ĉi [cxi] tio" means "this (thing)"; "tie" means "there", "ĉi [cxi] tie" means "here"; etc.
Ajn is the last word that is almost always connected with the correlatives. "Ajn" means "-ever" or "- at all". So, for example, "kio ajn" means "whatever", and "nenie ajn" means "nowhere at all", etc.


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